Gonbad-e Kavus is a county in Golestan Province in the north of Iran. This county, which is the most important and the largest city in the province, has an area of about 20/59 square kilometers and a population of 151910.
The Gonbad-e Kavus County is located at a distance of 3 kilometers from the ancient city of Gorgan (Hyrcania). It has also a Mediterranean climate, which has a relatively warm and dry summer season.
Furthermore, archaeology excavations have revealed that the history of the civilization related to this region dates back to 5 to 6 thousand years ago. Gonbad-e Kavus during the ancient periods was known as Hyrcania and then Gorgan.
Changes in the name of Gonbad-e Kavus
At the time of Muslim dominance, as there is no sound in Arabic representing the sound (g), it was known as Jorjan and was of great importance in trade due to being on the Silk Road. Later, the city was renamed to the “Gonbad-e Kavus”, because “Qabus ibn Wushmagir”, one of the Ziyarid rulers, had chosen Jorjan (currently Gonbad-e Kavus) as the capital of his government. He was a man of politics, honor, and manner who served the faithfully, consequently, the city was named after him.
Although the major part of the city was destroyed because of Mongol and Timurid invasion, Gonbad-e Kavus was the capital of Iran during the Ziyarid and Buyid dynasties.
Gonbad-e Kavus is now known more than anything else for “the Gonbad-e Qabus tower”, which is more than a thousand years old. In fact, the current city is only 100 years old because the city of Gonbad-e Kavus was devastated by an earthquake, while it was a symbol of Islamic and Iranian civilization for a long time. Besides, the remains of this historic city were later discovered in the eastern part of the current Gonbad-e Kavus, but it was not possible to reconstruct it. Therefore, under the command of Reza Pahlavi, German experts built the city in accordance with the principles of modern urbanism. The main design of this city has crossing streets and checkered patterns. Old narrow passages were also excluded from this new design.
Gonbad-e Kavus has a fertile soil, with rivers and wells providing water for agricultural activities. Wheat, barley, rice, legumes, and citruses are agricultural products of this city. Olive orchards are also found in abundance in the city. In addition, Gonbad-e Kavus is a grain exporter to Tehran and other major cities.
Horse breeding is also common in the region, and the Turkmen horse is renowned for its worldwide popularity. In addition, factories such as flour, oil, cotton ginning, canned food, LDF, etc are active in the county.
Gonbad-e Kavus has many touristic and historical regions, including the Gonbad-e Qabus tower, the tomb and the shrine of Khalid Nabi, the great Russian market, the Horseback riding complex of Gonbad-e Kavus, the historic city of Jorjan, the Golestan dam 1 and 2, and the three wetlands (Almagol, Ajigol, and Alagol) near the market and the customs.
The handicrafts of this county are carpet, Kilim, sackcloth, Dutar, Jewelry, Needlework, Dyeing, and felt work. Tatarchorak and Bishmeh are two famous traditional pastries of Gonbad-e Kavus.